Ulcerative proctitis is a localized form of ulcerative colitis. It is also called ulcerative rectitis.
Ulcerative proctitis generally affects the last 6 to 12 cm of the rectal mucosa.
The symptoms are: the presence of blood and mucus in the stool, soft stool or even liquid stool.
On examination with a rectoscope, a reddish mucosa with multiple small ulcerations can be seen. The mucosa is fragile and bleeds easily on contact. Beyond the diseased area, the mucosa is normal.
Biopsy is used to confirm the diagnosis.
Proctitis evolves in an episodic way. An episode may occur after months or even years with no symptoms. When it is done early, treatment usually works quickly, the mucosa returns to normal, and symptoms disappear.
The cause of ulcerative proctitis is not known; however, it is often noted that episodes are triggered by a period of stress.
Untreated ulcerative proctitis can sometimes progress to ulcerative colitis, which is a much more serious form of the disease.
The prognosis is good. With time, episodes become increasingly spaced out, often until they disappear completely.